Curcumin Solution is a high-tech formulation containing curcumin, the most biologically-active ingredient in turmeric. It has been developed to maximise curcumin absorption and to enable its potential to be fully exploited.
Numerous studies have demonstrated curcumin’s exceptional properties, particularly in relation to inflammation and mutations that cause cell proliferation.
Who is Curcumin Solution aimed at?
With its wide-ranging properties [anti-inflammatory (2-4), antioxidant (5), immune-modulating (6), pro-apoptotic (7) and anti-angiogenic (8-9)], Curcumin Solution is designed for anyone who wants to improve their daily life and optimise their health.
It is particularly recommended for:
- those experiencing pain of various sorts (particularly when related to arthritis);
- those with digestive problems (bloating, stomach ache, nausea, feelings of heaviness, loss of appetite);
- those suffering from chronic inflammatory problems or systemic inflammation;
- those at risk of cardiovascular problems;
- those affected by hyperlipidaemia (elevated LDL-cholesterol and/or triglyceride levels) ;
- those exposed to oxidative stress and/or high levels of carcinogenic oxidants (pesticides, cigarette smoke, pollution, chronic stress, etc.);
- those with liver problems;
- those who feel they’re ageing rapidly.
How does Curcumin Solution differ from other curcumin supplements?
Curcumin is an exceptional natural molecule but its efficacy depends on the amount absorbed by the body. Absorption is normally very low due to its instability in acid conditions, poor solubility in digestive fluids and difficulty crossing the intestinal wall (10-12).
The advantage offered by Curcumin Solution is that it significantly increases this absorption by micronizing the curcumin and making it soluble in digestive fluids using micelles (microscopic beads that mix easily in water). This is a highly ingenious process: it increases curcumin’s ability to cross the intestinal wall by a factor of 185 compared with standard curcumin. This huge increase in absorption raises the amount of curcumin circulating in, and retained by, the body (curcumin’s half-life is normally very short). By way of comparison, all other strategies employed to increase its absorption are less effective: with the addition of piperine, for example, its absorption is only multiplied 20-30 times (13-14), while incorporating curcumin into lecithin liposomes barely increases it by a factor of four.
An independent study has demonstrated that this is indeed the most bioavailable curcumin supplement on the market (15). Taking two capsules of Curcumin Solution a day results in 10-15 grams of curcumin circulating in the body, whereas it would take more than 25 capsules a day (containing 600mg of standard curcumin) to have any chance of reaching these levels. As a consequence, it’s possible to take fewer capsules and spend less money and still achieve an unparalleled level of circulating curcumin.
How does curcumin act in the body?
Curcumin is the most biologically-active compound in the rhizome of Curcuma longa. It has an impressive number of biological benefits and acts against multiple cellular targets involved in cancer (16), diabetes (17), cardiovascular problems (18-20), neurodegenerative diseases (21), rheumatism (22), etc. Its effects on inflammation and elevated blood lipids have been demonstrated in several animal and human studies (23-25). In particular, it inhibits cholesterol production by the liver (26) and reduces absorption of dietary cholesterol (27-29).
But the property which most interests researchers is curcumin’s ability to inhibit the proliferation of cancer cells. It does so by intervening at various points in their development and by stimulating the production of enzymes that facilitate their elimination (30). The problem is that the amounts shown by in vitro tests to be effective are difficult to achieve in the body - which is precisely why Curcumin Solution has been developed – to maximise its absorption.
In 2018, researchers took a giant leap forward when they identified the effects of curcumin on a protein involved in cancer cells (31).
Note: It’s important to point out that Curcumin Solution 60 Licaps™ is not meant to rival the supplement Super Curcuma 500mg, one of the best products in our catalogue and one which regularly receives high praise from our customers. Curcumin Solution 60 Licaps™ is designed more to produce systemic benefits as the curcumin it contains reaches the bloodstream more easily. As far as the digestive system is concerned, Super Curcuma 500mg remains without doubt the best turmeric supplement on the market because it concentrates the curcumin more specifically in this area.
Additional steps to maximise the benefits of Curcumin Solution
To maximise the efficacy of Curcumin Solution, the following measures can also be adopted throughout the supplementation period:
1) Take Curcumin Solution capsules at mealtimes. Curcumin is always best-absorbed when consumed with some dietary fat because fats slow down intestinal transit and increase the micelles’ contact time with the intestinal wall.
2) Increase your intake of omega-3 fatty acids. Omega-3 from oily fish and fish oil have powerful anti-inflammatory properties, but the amounts needed are difficult to obtain from diet alone. It’s therefore better to opt for EPA and DHA supplements (3 softgels a day).
3) Increase your consumption of fruit and vegetables, and at the same time, reduce that of pro-inflammatory foods rich in omega-6 (usually highly-processed foods).
4) Incorporate anti-cancer foods into your diet. The best-known are the red fruits (as they contain ellagic acid, anthocyanidins and proanthocyanidins), citrus fruit (vitamin C, polyphenols and terpenes), cruciferous vegetables (glucosinolates) and alliaceous vegetables (allicin, thiosulfinate, thiosulfonates, monosulfides, disulfides and trisulfides).
This new curcumin formulation brilliantly combines modern technology and ancient tradition. Technology, because its development has involved a feat of scientific skill (micro-encapsulation of the curcumin). Tradition, because it maximises the potential of a substance recognised by ancient systems of medicine for at least 4000 years.
It’s a timely response to unprecedented global interest and constitutes a perfect way of benefiting from the considerable therapeutic properties of turmeric.
Note : this product should not be used as a substitute for a varied, balanced diet and a healthy lifestyle. It’s important to follow the guidelines on how to take it and the recommended dose, and to use it by the ‘best before’ date. It is not recommended for women who are pregnant or breastfeeding, or for children under 15. Keep out of children’s reach. Store in a cool, dry place.
- Alexa Kocher, Laura Bohnert, Christina Schiborr and Jan Frank, Mol. Nutr. Food Res. 2016, 60, 1555–1563 DOI 10.1002/mnfr.201501034 1555 RESEARCH ARTICLE Highly bioavailable micellar curcuminoids accumulate in blood, are safe and do not reduce blood lipids and inflammation markers in moderately hyperlipidemic individuals k
- Jurenka, J. S., Anti-inflammatory properties of curcumin, a major constituent of Curcuma longa: a review of preclinical and clinical research. Altern. Med. Rev. 2009, 14, 141–153.
- Schaffer, M., Schaffer, P. M., Zidan, J., Bar Sela, G., Curcuma as a functional food in the control of cancer and inflammation. Curr. Opin. Clin. Nutr. Metab. Care 2011, 14, 588–597
- Shehzad, A., Ha, T., Subhan, F., Lee, Y. S., New mechanisms and the anti-inflammatory role of curcumin in obesity and obesity-related metabolic diseases. Eur. J. Nutr. 2011, 50, 151–161
- Dal Piaz F, B. A., Belisario, M. A., De Tommasi, N., Thioredoxin system modulation by plant and fungal secondary metabolites. Curr. Med. Chem. 2010, 17, 479–494.
- Karlstetter, M., Lippe, E., Walczak, Y., Moehle, C. et al., Curcumin is a potent modulator of microglial gene expression and migration. J. Neuroinflammat. 2011, 8, 125. doi:10.1186/1742-2094-8-125.
- Belakavadi, M., Salimath, B. P., Mechanism of inhibition of ascites tumor growth in mice by curcumin is mediated by NF-kB and caspase activated DNase. Mol. Cell Biochem. 2005, 273, 57–67.
- Anand, K., Sarkar, A., Kumar, A., Ambasta, R. K. et al., Combinatorial antitumor effect of naringenin and curcumin elicit angioinhibitory activities in vivo. Nutr. Cancer 2012, 64, 714– 724.
- El-Azab, M., Hishe, H., Moustafa, Y., El-Awady el, S., Antiangiogenic effect of resveratrol or curcumin in Ehrlich ascites carcinoma-bearing mice. Eur. J. Pharmacol. 2011, 652, 7–14.
- Schiborr, C., Eckert, G. P., Rimbach, G., Frank, J., A validated method for the quantification of curcumin in plasma and brain tissue by fast narrow-bore high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 2010, 397, 1917–1925
- Schiborr, C., Kocher, A., Behnam, D., Jandasek, J. et al., The oral bioavailability of curcumin from micronized powder and liquid micelles is significantly increased in healthy humans and differs between sexes. Mol. Nutr. Food Res. 2014, 58, 516–527.
- Kocher, A., Schiborr, C., Behnam, D., Frank, J., The Oral bioavailability of curcuminoids in healthy humans is markedly enhanced by micellar solubilisation but not further improved by simultaneous ingestion of sesamin, ferulic acid, naringenin and xanthohumol. J. Functional Foods 2015, 14, 183–191
- Shoba, G., Joy, D., Joseph, T., Majeed, M. et al., Influence of piperine on the pharmacokinetics of curcumin in animals and human volunteers. Planta Med. 1998, 64, 353–356.
- Vareed, S. K., Kakarala, M., Ruffin, M. T., Crowell, J. A. et al., Pharmacokinetics of curcumin conjugate metabolites in healthy human subjects. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. 2008, 17, 1411–1417.
- Jamwal R, Bioavailable curcumin formulations: A review of pharmacokinetic studies in healthy volunteers. J Integr Med. 2018 Nov;16(6):367-374. doi: 10.1016/j.joim.2018.07.001. Epub 2018 Jul 4.*
- Golombick, T., Diamond, T. H., Manoharan, A., Ramakrishna, R., Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance, smoldering multiple myeloma, and curcumin: a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled cross-over 4g study and an open-label 8g extension study. Am. J. Hematol. 2012, 87, 455–460.
- Chuengsamarn S1, Rattanamongkolgul S, Luechapudiporn R, Phisalaphong C, Jirawatnotai S. Curcumin extract for prevention of type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2012 Nov;35(11):2121-7. doi: 10.2337/dc12-0116. Epub 2012 Jul 6.
- Alwi, I., Santoso, T., Suyono, S., Sutrisna, B. et al., The effect of curcumin on lipid level in patients with acute coronary syndrome. Acta. Med. Indones 2008, 40, 201–210.
- Akazawa, N., Choi, Y., Miyaki, A., Tanabe, Y. et al., Curcumin ingestion and exercise training improve vascular endothelial function in postmenopausal women. Nutr. Res. 2012, 32, 795–799.
- Khajehdehi, P., Zanjaninejad, B., Aflaki, E., Nazarinia, M. et al., Oral supplementation of turmeric decreases proteinuria, hematuria, and systolic blood pressure in patients suffering from relapsing or refractory lupus nephritis: a randomized and placebo-controlled study. J. Ren. Nutr. 2012, 22, 50–57.
- Pareyson, D., Marchesi, C., Natural history and treatment of peripheral inherited neuropathies. Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 2009, 652, 207–224
- Chandran, B., Goel, A., A randomized, pilot study to assess the efficacy and safety of curcumin in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis. Phytother. Res. 2012, 26, 1719–1725
- Shin, S. K., Ha, T. Y., McGregor, R. A., Choi, M. S., Long-term curcumin administration protects against atherosclerosis via hepatic regulation of lipoprotein cholesterol metabolism. Mol. Nutr. Food Res. 2011, 55, 1829–1840
- Pungcharoenkul, K., Thongnopnua, P., Effect of Different curcuminoid supplement dosages on total in vivo antioxidant capacity and cholesterol levels of healthy human subjects. Phytother. Res. 2011, 25, 1721–1726
- Belcaro, G., Cesarone, M. R., Dugall, M., Pellegrini, L. et al., Product-evaluation registry of Meriva(R), a curcuminphosphatidylcholine complex, for the complementary management of osteoarthritis. Panminerva Med. 2010, 52, 55–62
- Shin, S. K., Ha, T. Y., McGregor, R. A., Choi, M. S., Long-term curcumin administration protects against atherosclerosis via hepatic regulation of lipoprotein cholesterol metabolism. Mol. Nutr. Food Res. 2011, 55, 1829–1840.
- Rao, D. S., Sekhara, N. C., Satyanarayana, M. N., Srinivasan, M., Effect of Curcumin on Serum and Liver Cholesterol Levels in the Rat. J. Nutr. 1970, 100, 1307–1315
- Babu, P. S., Srinivasan, K., Hypolipidemic action of curcumin, the active principle of turmeric (curcuma longa) in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Mol. Cell Biochem. 1997, 166, 169–175.
- Manjunatha, H., Srinivasan, K., Hypolipidemic and antioxidant effects of dietary curcumin and capsaicin in induced hypercholesterolemic rats. Lipids 2007, 42, 1133–1142.
- Cancer chemopreventive effects of curcumin. Surh YJ, Chun KS. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2007;595:149-72. Review.
- Sourav Banerjee, Chenggong Ji, Joshua E. Mayfield, Apollina Goel, JunyuXiao, Jack E. Dixon, Xing Guo. Ancient drug curcumin impedes 26S proteasome activity by direct inhibition of dual-specificity tyrosine-regulated kinase 2, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences Jul 2018, 201806797; DOI:10.1073/pnas.1806797115
Adults. Take 2 Licaps™ a day.
Each Licaps™ capsule contains 500mg of NovaSOL® Curcumin.
Super Omega 3 has been formulated to offer an optimal intakeof marine-source omega-3 fatty acids. These natural lipids have scientifically-proven effects on the composition of cell membranes as well as on numerous biochemical and physiological processes: regulation of blood pressure, anti-inflammatory responses, platelet aggregation, secretion of mood-influencing neurotransmitters, neuron activity …
Who is Super Omega 3 aimed at?
Super Omega 3 is for all sections of the population.
The World Health Organization, along with all Western countries, recommends a minimum intake of 500mg a day of EPA+DHA in order to maintain health (1), and in particular, to support brain development and function.
Yet numerous studies have shown that this level of intake is a long way from that currently achieved by American and European populations (2-8 times lower than daily recommended amounts).
And while these recommendations apply to healthy individuals, all the indications are that certain categories of people need more of these fatty acids (up to 1000mg/day (2)):
- those over 50 (to protect against cognitive decline);
- those suffering from chronic inflammation;
- those with a large waistline (excess adipose fat) ;
- those with hypertension, hypertriglyceridaemia, hypercholesterolaemia or hyperglycaemia;
- those suffering from fatigue or low mood;
- those at risk of cardiovascular problems.
Why take marine-source Omega-3?
In theory, the body is able to produce EPA and DHA from plant-source omega-3 fatty acids, but intake of these has declined significantly over the years as a result of modern farming methods and changes in our diet (3).
What’s more, the rate at which they’re converted is now very low as a result of our inappropriately-high consumption of omega-6 (4). Of far less benefit to the body, these fatty acids are nonetheless ubiquitous in modern processed foods and they mobilise all the enzymes (elongases and desaturases) needed for the conversion of plant-source omega-3s into DHA and EPA.
So if you decided to increase your intake of plant-source omega-3 fatty acids, you would not see any benefits unless you simultaneously made significant cuts to your omega-6 intake. The fact is, we actually need to consume the same amount of plant omega-3 as we do omega-6, but our actual consumption of omega-6 is 15-50 times greater than that of our plant-source omega-3.
In excess, omega-6 displace omega-3 and invade cell membranes in their place, resulting in the formation of billions of pro-inflammatory molecules (5-6) which are thought to play a key role in the development and exacerbation of chronic diseases.
This adverse imbalance could be rectified through daily consumption of oily fish rich in EPA and DHA. Unfortunately, however, the level of contamination of these fish and the fact that they’re relatively inaccessible makes this an untenable option … Our actual intake of marine-source omega-3, EPA and DHA, is very far from the minimum amounts recommended, and further still from optimal levels.
Supplementing with EPA and DHA is thus the simplest and most effective way of rapidly restoring healthy membranes.
What are the
recognised benefits of EPA and DHA?
EPA and DHA are molecules that penetrate cell membranes – the layers of fat that demarcate our body’s cells. From this strategic space, they influence a wide variety of the body’s functions.
chronic inflammation and metabolic problems.
When cell membranes take up EPA and DHA, they become more fluid and permeable. This is a really important point as when they’re more rigid, membrane exchange is restricted, promoting chronic inflammation.
In addition, in cases of systemic inflammation, the body can ‘dip into’ this store of omega-3 fatty acids and convert them into anti-inflammatory molecules. With omega-6, the complete reverse happens – they are converted into pro-inflammatory compounds which encourages the development of metabolic dysfunctions such as insulin-resistance and metabolic syndrome.
They reduce the risk of cardiovascular problems
In recent years, 12 studies have demonstrated the benefits of supplementing with omega-3 for
preventing acute coronary syndrome and other cardiovascular problems (7).
Several mechanisms are responsible for these effects. First and foremost, supplementing with omega-3 helps lower omega-6 concentrations in membranes, and as a result, reduces their conversion into pro-inflammatory derivatives (8). It also acts on the atheromatous plaque that causes cardiovascular problems: omega-3 help lower blood pressure and reduce triglycideraemia (9) - high levels of triglycerides being a recognised risk factor for heart problems - by lowering the liver’s production of these fats and by increasing their elimination via LDL-transporters.
They also stabilise atheromatous plaque by reducing production of inflammatory cytokines and by preventing monocytes from adhering to the vascular wall (10-11). Last but not least, omega-3 regulate a large number of genes, particularly those involved in fat metabolism.
They optimise cognitive function
Several studies, including a prominent one published in 2002, show that supplementing with EPA for several weeks produces a
significant decrease in depressive disorders
in a high proportion of people suffering from major depression (12-13).
In the same vein,
post-partum depression may actually be linked to a reduction in cellular levels of EPA and DHA in pregnant women, resulting in significantly-reduced reserves by the end of their pregnancy (14). Scientists have discovered that it takes around a year for initial reserves to be restored to the levels required for healthy functioning of the serotonergic and cholinergic systems (DHA normally represents 10-20% of the fatty acid composition of the brain (15)). Low DHA levels in brain cell membranes do not only result in depression. They also lead to a lack of dopamine in the brain’s cortical regions, which may play a role in cognitive decline and impair the growth and development of the nervous system.
Once integrated into the membrane,
DHA makes it more flexible, improving the speed of transduction and neurotransmission. It also affects neural extension development, synapsis establishment, neural plasticity, maturation of neurons and their migration towards appropriate sites, and thus plays a significant role in motor, sensory and cognitive abilities (16). Carlson and his team thus demonstrated the benefits on learning capacity of a diet rich in omega-3.
They protect visual function
DHA represents more
than 30% of all the fatty acids present in the retina (17). It is one of the most important compounds constituting the membranes of the outer segments of photoreceptors (18). The constant renewal of these cell components requires a regular and high intake of DHA or its precursors. DHA also supports a fundamental step in the phototransduction mechanism (19) which allows the conversion of light energy into a nerve signal (20). It is thus no surprise that deficiencies in DHA are associated with a number of visual dysfunctions such as AMD (21-23).
Super Omega 3 so exceptional?
1) It’s a 100% natural supplement
with optimal bioavailability
Like all our omega-3 supplements (Super EPA and Super DHA), Super Omega 3 contains
EPA and DHA fatty acids
in their natural form (triglycerides). These are more expensive than the synthetic form (ethyl esters), but studies show they may be more easy to digest (no ethanol is released) and twice as bioavailable.
unlike many other laboratories, we have chosen to develop our product from wild fish oil. A number of studies have shown that
farmed fish contain less omega-3 and more omega-6 (24). This is because such fish are fed inferior food: whereas wild fish feed on tiny fish, crustaceans and microalgae which are very rich in omega-3, farmed fish are often fed cereals and vegetable oils high in omega-6. What’s more, they are often farmed in inhumane and unsanitary conditions, and are routinely given antibiotics and anti-fungals.
2) The production methods used
respect the environment
it offers optimal quality, Super Omega 3 is produced from a top quality fish oil, obtained from fishing zones off the coasts of Peru and Chile free from any industrial contamination. Fish are selected for their naturally high content in omega-3 fatty acids (sardines, mackerel and anchovies). These fish oils are thus certified Friend of the Sea® which means they come from sustainable fisheries that meet strict criteria, with guaranteed management of fishing quotas. Smaller fish are prioritised as larger ones have lived longer and have accumulated waste products: mercury, dioxins and even pesticides.
3) It has
an optimal safety profile
In order to guarantee it is completely free
from contaminants (PCB, heavy metals, dioxins), SuperSmart uses
patented purification technology. This is a natural process
called enzymatic hydrolysis which produces the highest
concentration of EPA and DHA in
a 100 % pure oil.
In addition, as omega-3 fatty acids are highly-vulnerable to oxidation, we add natural ingredients to protect them and maximise their shelf life. Indeed, when omega-3 are oxidised, they are converted into
trans fatty acids devoid of any health benefits. It’s therefore essential to protect them with antioxidants so that they retain their beneficial effects over time. That’s why SuperSmart has chosen to add tocopherols (vitamin E) to this exceptional formulation.
It’s also why it’s best to store them in a cool, dry place, away from sunlight.
What happens to the omega-3 once they’ve been ingested?
Following ingestion and absorption, EPA and DHA are incorporated into cell membranes with phospholipids. This is a slow process: Super Omega 3 therefore needs to be taken every day for several weeks or even months in order to fully obtain its benefits.
At the end of the supplementation period, the increased intake in omega-3 will be reflected in the composition of the phospholipid membranes. The NAT-2 study showed that supplementation with omega-3 produced a significant increase (up to 70%) in levels of these fatty acids in membranes. To achieve this, it is advisable to reduce your intake of omega-6 throughout the supplementation period.
Do we know for sure that EPA and DHA reach the brain?
Yes. These two compounds definitely cross the blood-brain barrier, by means of transport proteins specific to long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. Several clinical trials have proved that oral administration of omega-3 results in accumulation of these fatty acids in tissues of the central nervous system (25-26).
Note: this product should not be used as a substitute for a varied, balanced diet and a healthy lifestyle. It’s important to follow the guidelines on how to take it and the recommended dose, and to use it by the ‘best before’ date. It is not recommended for women who are pregnant or breastfeeding, or for children under 15. Keep out of children’s reach. Store in a cool, dry place.
- Food and Nutrition Board (FNB), Institute of Medicine (IOM). Dietary reference intakes for Energy, Carbohydrates, Fiber, Fats, Protein and Amino Acids (Macronutrients), The National Academies Press, 2005, Executive summary, page 11.
- ANSES, « Actualisation des apports nutritionnels conseillés pour les acides gras », mai 2011.
- P. Simopoulos, « Omega-6/omega-3 essantial fatty acid ratio and chronic diseases », Food Rev. Int., vol. 20, no 1, p. 77 90, 2004.
- P. Simopoulos, « The omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid ratio : health implications », Ol. Corps Gras Lipides, vol. 17, no 5, p. 267 275, 2010.
- U. Gogus et C. Smith, « n-3 Omega fatty acids : a review of current knowledge », Int. J. Food Sci. Technol., vol. 45, p. 417 436, 2010.
- K. S. Broughton, C. S. Johnson, B. K. Pace, M. Liebman, et K. M. Kleppinger, « Reduced asthma symptoms with n-3 fatty acid ingestion are related to 5-series leukotriene production », Am. J. Clin. Nutr., vol. 65, p. 1011 1017, 1997.
- J. L. Breslow, « n-3 Fatty acids and cardiovascular disease », Am. J. Clin. Nutr., vol. 83, p. 1477 1482, 2006
- P. Simopoulos, « Evolutionary aspects of diet, the omega-6/omega-3 ratio and genetic variation : nutritional implications for chronic diseases », Biomed. Pharmacother., vol. 60, p. 502 507, 2006.
- W. S. Harris, « n-3 Fatty acids and serum lipoproteins : animal studies », Am. J. Clin. Nutr., vol. 65, p. 1611 1616, 1997
- L. Monnier et C. Colette, « Acides gras Omega 3 et pathologie cardiovasculaire : la part du vrai », Médecine Mal. Métaboliques, vol. 5, no 3, p. 269 277, 2011
- Leray, « Maladies coronariennes et athhérosclérose », in Les lipides, Laoisier., 2013, p. 204 207
- L. Stoll, E. Severus, M. P. Freeman, S. Rueter, H. A. Zboyan, E. Diamond, K. K. Cress, et L. B. Marangell, « Omega 3 fatty acids in bipolar disorders : a preliminary double-blind, placebo-controlled trial », Arch. Gen. Psychiatry, vol. 56, p. 407 412, 1999.
- Nemets, Z. Staht, et R. H. Belmaker, « Addition of omega-3 fatty acid to maintenant medication treatment for recurrent unipolar depressive disorder », Am. Psychiatr. Publ., vol. 159, no 3, p. 447 479, 2002.
- J. Sontrop et M. K. Campbell, « N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and depression: A review of the evidence and a methodological critique », Prev. Med., vol. 42, p. 4 13, 2006
- R. K. McNamara et S. E. Carlson, « Role of omega-3 fatty acids in brain development and function : Potential implications for the pathogenesis and prevention of psychopathology », Prostaglandins Leukot. Essent. Fatty Acids, vol. 75, p. 329 349, 2006
- M. Lavialle et S. Layé, « Acides gras poly-insaturés (Omega 3, Omega 6) et fonctionnement du système nerveux central », Innov. Agron., vol. 10, p. 25 42, 2010.
- Bretillon, L., Thuret, G., Grégoire, S., Acar, N., Joffre, C., Bron, A.M., Gain, P., CreuzotGarcher, C.P., 2008b. Lipid and fatty acid profile of the retina, retinal pigment epithelium/choroid, and the lacrimal gland, and associations with adipose tissue fatty acids in human subjects. Exp. Eye Res. 87, 521–528. doi:10.1016/j.exer.2008.08.010
- Fliesler, S.J., Anderson, R.E., 1983. Chemistry and metabolism of lipids in the vertebrate retina. Prog. Lipid Res. 22, 79–131.
- Litman, B.J., Mitchell, D.C., 1996. A role for phospholipid polyunsaturation in modulating membrane protein function. Lipids 31 Suppl, S193–197.
- Salem, N., Jr, Litman, B., Kim, H.Y., Gawrisch, K., 2001. Mechanisms of action of docosahexaenoic acid in the nervous system. Lipids 36, 945–959.
- Uauy, R., Hoffman, D.R., Peirano, P., Birch, D.G., Birch, E.E., 2001. Essential fatty acids in visual and brain development. Lipids 36, 885–895.
- Chong, E.W.-T., Robman, L.D., Simpson, J.A., Hodge, A.M., Aung, K.Z., Dolphin, T.K., English, D.R., Giles, G.G., Guymer, R.H., 2009. Fat consumption and its association with age-related macular degeneration. Arch. Ophthalmol. 127, 674–680. doi:10.1001/archophthalmol.2009.60
- Christen, W.G., Schaumberg, D.A., Glynn, R.J., Buring, J.E., 2011. Dietary ω-3 fatty acid and fish intake and incident age-related macular degeneration in women. Arch. Ophthalmol. 129, 921–929. doi:10.1001/archophthalmol.2011.34
- M. A. Hossain, « Fish as source of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), which one is better - farmed or wild ? », Adv. J. Food Sci. Technol., vol. 3, no 6, p. 455 466, 2011
- R. W. Mitchell et G. M. Hatch, « Fatty acid transport into the brain : of fatty acid fables and lipid tails », Prostaglandins Leukot. Essent. Fatty Acids, vol. 85, p. 293 302, 2011
- Y. Freund Levi, I. Vedin, T. Cederholm, H. Basun, G. Faxén Irving, M. Eriksdotter, E. Hjorth, M. Schultzberg, B. Vessby, L.-O. Wahlund, N. Salem Jr., et J. Palmblad, « Transfer of omega-3 fatty acids across the blood-brain barrier after dietary supplementation with a docosahexaenoic acid-rich omega-3 fatty acid preparation in patients with Alzheimer’s disease : the omegaAD study », J. Intern. Med., vol. 275, p. 428 436, 2014.
Take three softgels a day at mealtimes.