Lipolysis is the body’s mechanism for breaking down fats to make them absorbable and usable. There are two types: gastrointestinal lipolysis, which takes place during digestion, and adipocyte lipolysis, concerned with stored fat, which is often referred to as ‘fat-burning’. How can you use it to help achieve your slimming goals?
This form of lipolysis breaks down dietary fats, i.e., those we ingest when we eat food. The vast majority of these are triglycerides, complex lipids that are too large to be absorbed intact by the gut. They need to be made digestible when they pass into the intestine: from here, they are released into the bloodstream.
The digestion of dietary fats is initiated in the stomach by gastric lipase. Lipases are ‘fat-splitting’ enzymes. In the stomach, they emulsify triglycerides to produce smaller lipids (primarily monoglycerides and diglycerides).
The production of monoglycerides then triggers the synthesis of pancreatic lipase. This acts in the small intestine, breaking down 75% of the triglycerides ingested. It is also in the small intestine that biliary acids (contained in bile) come into play. Secreted by the liver and stored in biliary vesicles, these acids facilitate the digestion of large lipids by emulsifying them into small droplets. Once digested via this joint lipase/bile salt action, lipids are absorbed through the intestinal mucosa. Any excess dietary fats are stored in the form of triglycerides in adipocytes. This process is called strong>lipogenesis.
Adipocytes are specialised fat-storing cells: they constitute the body’s principal store of available energy. Adipocyte clusters form adipose tissue which is found in different proportions and at different sites in the body depending on the individual. Men primarily have adipose tissue around the abdomen, while in most women, it is found on the thighs, buttocks, stomach and breasts. Excess fat produces a form of cellulite, responsible for the infamous ‘orange peel skin’.
Adipocyte lipolysis occurs when the body needs energy (during exercise or fasting...) and is unable to obtain it directly from the diet.
When this is the case, the body emits various hormone signals (adrenaline, noradrenaline, cortisol, ghrelin...), triggering a metabolic cascade that culminates in the mobilisation of... those same lipases! They break down the triglycerides present in adipocytes, releasing glycerol, fatty acids and... energy. The glycerol is predominantly eliminated by the kidneys. As for the fatty acids, they can either be broken down in the mitochondria of cells for energy production (beta-oxidation), or when present at excess levels, they can also be used to produce ketone bodies in the liver. These are a source of energy for the brain when there is insufficient glucose available. Prolonged fasting increases the production of ketone bodies, and in excess, they are toxic. It’s wise, therefore, to fast only under supervision.
To burn fat stored in adipose tissue in order to lose weight and slim down, you need to expend more energy. There are several natural and effective ways of doing this.
So you now have a complete range of options for burning excess fat and achieving a trimmer figure!
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