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Welcome Shop by health concern Heart and circulation Willow Bark Extract + PEA
Willow Bark Extract + PEA
Willow Bark Extract + PEA Willow Bark Extract + PEA Willow Bark Extract + PEA
Willow Bark Extract + PEA
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42.00 €(46.23 US$) is available
Description
P.E.A., an all-round, natural analgesic
  • formulated from palmitoylethanolamide (PEA);
  • anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties;
  • used for relieving neuropathic and inflammatory pain.
‘Plant-based’ aspirin from white willow bark for relieving pain and reducing the risk of cardiovascular events
  • Helps provide lasting relief from chronic pain and headaches without causing side-effects.
  • Standardised to 15% salicin, but also contains many other natural synergistic anti-inflammatories: flavonoids, polyphenols, flavanones, proanthocyanidins …
  • Produced exclusively from white willow bark.
  • Lowers the risk of cardiovascular events (natural anti-coagulant).
  • Supports general health and strengthens and stimulates the body.
  • Essential element of supplementation for anyone over 45.
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Our dietary supplement P.E.A. is the result of many years'research into palmitoylethanolamide. More commonly-known as PEA, this compound's considerable therapeutic potential has made it the subject of numerous scientific studies.

What are the benefits associated with PEA supplement?

The anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties of this fatty acid amide have been known for decades but it was in 1990 that its therapeutic benefits were properly recognised by the scientific community as a result of the work of Italian Nobel Laureate Rita Levi-Montalcini. This famous neurologist demonstrated PEA's efficacy in treating some types of neuropathic pain. Further research then led to the development of PEA-based nutritional supplements. These products have been available since 2010 in the form of powder or capsules and have made quite an impact in the Netherlands where they are offered as a new kind of P.E.A..

According to some scientists, this fatty acid amide works by binding to a specific cell receptor called PPAR-alpha. This receptor activates peroxisomes - cell organelles involved in the regulation of pain and inflammation genes. By binding to the PPAR-alpha receptor, PEA reduces peripheral sensitivity induced by both neural and non-neural cells. In other words, PEA's action reduces the sensation of pain in a number of situations. In this context, encouraging results have already been obtained in:

  • Diabetic neuropathy;
  • Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy;
  • Carpal tunnel syndrome;
  • Back pain, sciatica, pelvic pain and multiple sclerosis.

The effects of this compound are significant, given that pain can be common and varied. It can take the form of acute pain which is temporary in nature, or chronic pain that persists over a long period of time. Scientists also categorise pain by its origin: inflammatory pain which involves the immune system, neuropathic pain which is associated with the nervous system, and a mixture of the two – both inflammatory and neuropathic. A number of treatments have been developed to relieve such pain and it is within this context that PEA has been identified as natural solution to pain that is inflammatory, neuropathic or a mixture of the two. PEA has the advantage of being a natural molecule, found, for example, in eggs and milk.

P.E.A. has been developed from a high quality, patented PEA formulation called OptiPEA's. This pain relief supplement is in capsule form with a suggested dose of three capsules a day, although this dosage can be adapted to your needs and the advice of your therapist. It should be noted that taking this supplement may not produce instant pain relief. Several days's supplementation may be necessary to obtain the desired results. You may also be interested in our other formulations aimed at relieving joint pain: OptiMSM® and Joint Support Formula.mitoylethanolamide.

CompositionPEA
Daily dose: 3 capsules
Number of doses per pack: 20

Amount
per dose

OptiPEA©(Palmitoylethanolamide) 1 200 mg
Other ingredients :Acacia gum, rice bran.
OptiPEA©, Innexus Nutraceuticals, Holland.
Directions for usePEA
adults. Take 3 capsules a day.
Each capsule contains 400 mg of OptiPEA©.
Willow Bark Extract

Willow Bark Extract is an analgesic and cardioprotective supplement made from white willow bark. It’s a gentler, safer and longer-lasting alternative to the drug aspirin. Over the past few months, it has been attracting extraordinary interest for its clinically-proven synergistic power, naturally high salicin content and durable effects on chronic pain and circulation.

What’s the reason for this phenomenal rise in interest in white willow extract?

The use of willow bark for medicinal purposes spans centuries and civilisations.. From Imperial China to First Nation America, Ancient Greece to medieval Europe, willow bark has been widely used to soothe pain and bring down fever (1).

In 1828, Pierre-Joseph Leroux, a French pharmacist, thought he had identified the active substance behind these effects: salicin. It was quickly discovered that this substance was converted in the body into salicylic acid, a compound with clear analgesic and antipyretic properties. There then followed a frantic race to be the first laboratory to synthesise the molecule. It was a German chemist working for the Bayer group who succeeded in doing so, producing for the first time a derivative of salicylic acid (acetylsalicylic acid) without using willow bark. Named ‘aspirin’, the drug would go on to enjoy rapid success, consigning willow bark to oblivion … for almost 120 years.

But for some time now, white willow extract has been experiencing a surprising and extraordinary comeback. Why so? In actual fact, Pierre-Joseph Leroux had made a mistake. While salicin is indeed an active compound in willow bark, it is by no means the only one! There are dozens of other natural molecules that act synergistically and complement the effect of salicin (2-3): proanthocyanidins (extensively metabolised by our gut flora), anti-inflammatory flavanones (naringenin, eriodictyol) (4-5), flavonoids (dihydroquercetin), flavonols (catechin) and polyphenols (caffeic, ferulic, cinnamic, vanillic, hydroxybenzoic and coumaric acids). And it’s the combination of these natural compounds that is responsible both for the anti-inflammatory effects of white willow extract, and its antioxidant, antiseptic, and immune-stimulating effects (6). A number of studies have shown blood levels of salicin to be too low to account exclusively for the analgesic effects of this extract (7-8).

In isolating one of these natural compounds, and offering it in an already-metabolised synthetic form, Bayer undoubtedly produced an effective painkiller, but it is one which is associated with significant side-effects. Its unique mechanism of action requires enormous amounts of salicylic acid which in the long term can damage the body (particularly in terms of gastrointestinal bleeding). In contrast, willow bark’s efficacy comes from a range of anti-inflammatory mechanisms of action and does not directly expose the digestive tract to acetylsalicylic acid. Willow bark extract thus contains a dose of salicylic acid which is potentially 10 times lower than that of standard aspirin tablets, but with physiologically comparable effects.

What are the main benefits of willow bark extract?

Willow Bark Extract offers anti-inflammatory, analgesic and cardioprotective effects. It is particularly good for:

  • Those suffering from acute or chronic pain (headaches, back pain, arthritic pain, menstrual cramps, ‘flu …).
    Scientific research has clearly demonstrated white willow’s efficacy in relieving chronic and acute pain. A summary published in 2007 concluded that white willow was effective for lumbar pain (13) when taken for around four weeks. Studies similarly show its effectiveness for arthritic pain, particularly in the knee and hip (14-15). The authors point out that its effects take longer to be felt than those of anti-inflammatory drugs, but that they produce far fewer adverse side-effects. In 2009, a research team drawing on three major clinical studies showed white willow extract to be effective against muscle pain (16).
  • Those aged over 50, for reducing the risk of cardiovascular problems, combatting oxidative stress and improving general health.
    Low-dose aspirin (or ‘baby aspirin’) has for many years been recommended for preventing cardiovascular disease and stroke in those over 50, especially individuals with several risk factors. The action of salicylic acid prevents blood clots from forming and thus reduces the risk of a cardiovascular event. The United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF), an independent group of American researchers, confirmed this anew in 2016: the benefits they measured show that for 10,000 men presenting with a 10% 10-year cardiovascular risk, aspirin prevents 225 heart attacks, 84 strokes and 139 cases of colorectal cancer. That’s a gain of more than 300 years of life. For a few years now, however, some researchers have held the view that the benefits of aspirin may not always outweigh its adverse side effects (particularly the increased risk of bleeding). Gentler and more comprehensive, extract of willow bark thus appears to be the perfect alternative to aspirin for those who want to reduce their likelihood of a cardiovascular event without exposing themselves to other health risks.

How does willow bark extract differ from the drug aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid)?

There are three main differences between the two.

  1. Willow bark acts more slowly than acetylsalicylic acid in relieving pain but its effect is sustained over the long term.
  2. Willow bark extract does not cause the unwelcome side effects (irritation of stomach mucosa and inhibition of coagulation) associated with acetylsalicylic acid. The plant is metabolised very differently from its synthetic counterpart (9). This characteristic lends itself well to multi-target therapy, a new therapeutic approach which focuses on exerting physiological effects by means of a combination of targets rather than the action of a single, high-dose molecule. Scientists have observed that this type of therapy has been able to reduce and even eliminate side-effects because of the lower individual dose of the active compounds (10-12).
  3. Willow bark extract also offers antioxidant, anti-infectious, immune-stimulant and invigorating properties.

What are white willow extract’s mechanisms of action?

Salicin’s mechanism of action remained a mystery for many years. It was only in 1971 that John Vane and his team at the Wellcome Foundation showed that it prevented the action of certain enzymes - COX-1 and COX-2 - involved in metabolising arachidonic acid. These enzymes promote the first stage in the formation of a group of eicosanoids - signalling molecules involved in inflammatory processes.

By blocking the action of these COX enzymes, salicin lowers production of a number of inflammatory mediators which are responsible for pain, swelling and other symptoms associated with inflammatory processes. Inhibition of COX-1 also reduces levels of thromboxane, a vasoconstrictor which leads to increased blood pressure. It is this mechanism of action which explains the use of low-dose aspirin for lowering the risk of heart attack (17). A number of studies have shown that salicylic acid also interacts with RNA and coenzyme A, opening up a potential application in the area of oncology (18).

All the other compounds in willow extract have complex and complementary cell mechanisms, indirectly inhibiting the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-alpha and interleukin-6, inhibiting translocation of the protein NF-kB (19), and inactivating transcription of certain genes associated with inflammation.

How is it that white willow contain compounds that are so beneficial for humans?

The salicin and flavonoids present in white willow first and foremost benefit the plant itself. They improve its resistance to pathogens and insects which feed off its sap (phloem). More surprisingly, salicin also acts as a communicator between willow trees. When one tree is attacked by a virus, salicin is converted into methyl salicylate, an organic compound which is dispersed into the atmosphere and protects other plants from the danger to which it is exposed. It is a genuine signalling substance capable of activating defence genes in the tissues of neighbouring plants (20).

What’s more, because it contains anti-inflammatory compounds able to relieve pain in the herbivores consuming its leaves, shoots and bark, the plant is attractive to animals, thus increasing the dispersal of its seeds. This may therefore be an evolutionary strategy designed to increase its expansion and survival.

Are there any contraindications for taking white willow bark?

Unlike aspirin, willow bark has been shown in clinical trials to have almost no adverse side-effects (21). In particular it has a far weaker anti-platelet effect. Nevertheless, those suffering from gastritis, coagulation problems, haemophilia, kidney disorders or stomach ulcers should seek medical advice before taking willow extract.

In addition, those with an aspirin allergy or hypersensitivity could well find the same problem with willow bark.

It’s estimated that around 80% of the salicin in willow bark extract is absorbed following ingestion. It is then metabolised into saligenin by gut flora, and subsequently converted into salicylic acid (22). It is thus salicin which comes into contact with the digestive tract and not salicylic acid as is the case with aspirin.

How should Willow Bark Extract be taken?

An appropriate dose is 1-2 capsules taken with meals.
For chronic pain and cardiovascular health, it should be continued for at least 4-6 weeks in order to fully benefit from its effects. Willow Bark Extract can be combined with the supplement Triple Protect for even greater cardiovascular benefits, with Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) for enhanced anti-inflammatory effects, and with Ubiquinol for a synergistic antioxidant action.

Note : researchers have demonstrated a powerful synergy between the phytochemical compounds in coffee, which can prevent lipid peroxidation, and willow bark extract, indicating a protective effect for cell membrane phospholipids (23). Phosphatidylcholine (PC) and omega-3 may, for their part, help to maintain the stability and fluidity of cell membranes that have potentially been damaged by long-term use of aspirin (24). It has also been reported that the same conversion into salicylic acid occurs with meadowsweet (Spiraea Ulmaria).

With the introduction of Willow Bark Extract, it is now possible to obtain the benefits of a completely natural, plant-source aspirin, the properties of which are almost identical to those of the chemically-synthesised product.

References

  1. Lévesque H, Lafont O. 2000. Aspirin throughout the ages: a historical review. Rev. Med. Interne21(Suppl. 1), 8s–17s. (10.1016/S0248-8663(00)88720-2) [PubMed]
  2. Khayyal MT, El-Ghazaly MA, Abdallah DM, Okpanyi SN, Kelber O, Weiser D. Mechanisms involved in the anti-inflammatory effect of a standardized willow bark extract. Arzneimittel-Forschung. 2005;55(11):677–687.
  3. Pobłocka-Olech L, Krauze-Baranowska M, Głód D, Kawiak A, Łojkowska E. Chromatographic analysis of simple phenols in some species from the genus salix. Phytochemical Analysis. 2010;21(5):463–469.
  4. Jin, L., Zeng, W., Zhang, F., Zhang, C., Liang, W. 2017. Naringenin ameliorates acute inflammation by regulating intracellular cytokine degradation. J. Immunol. 199, 3466-3477.
  5. Lee, E., Jeong, K., W., Shin, A., Jin, B., Jnawali, H., N., Jun, B., H., Lee, J., Y., Heo, Y., S., Kim, Y. 2013. Binding model for eriodictyol to Jun-N terminal kinase and its antiinflammatory signaling pathway. BMB Rep. 46, 594-599
  6. Highfield ES, Kemper KJ. 1999. White willow bark (Salix alba). The Longwood Herbal Task Force, 1–12. http://www.mcp.edu/ herbal/default.htm
  7. Nahrstedt, A., Schmidt, M., Jäggi, R., Metz, J., Khayyal, M. T., 2007. Willow bark extract: the contribution of polyphenols to the overall effect. Wien. Med. Wochenschr. 157, 348–351.
  8. Schmid, B., Kötter, I., Heide, L. 2001. Pharmacokinetics of salicin after oral administration of a standardised willow bark extract. Eur. J. Clin. Pharmacol. 57, 387–391.
  9. Blumenthal M, Goldberg A, Brinckmann J (Ed). Expanded Commission E Monographs, American Botanical Council, publié en collaboration avec Integrative Medicine Communications, États-Unis, 2000, p. 410.
  10. Wagner H. Multitarget therapy—the future of treatment for more than just functional dyspepsia. Phytomedicine. 2006;13(1):122–129.
  11. Berenbaum MC. What is synergy? Pharmacological Reviews. 1989;41(2):93–141.
  12. Williamson EM. Synergy and other interactions in phytomedicines. Phytomedicine. 2001;8(5):401–409.
  13. Herbal medicine for low back pain: a Cochrane review. Gagnier JJ, van Tulder MW, et al. Spine. 2007 Jan 1;32(1):82-92. Review. Erratum in: Spine. 2007 Aug 1;32(17):1931.
  14. Biegert C, Wagner I, et al. Efficacy and safety of willow bark extract in the treatment of osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis: results of 2 randomized double-blind controlled trials. J Rheumatol. 2004 Nov;31(11):2121-30.
  15. Beer AM, Wegener T. Willow bark extract (Salicis cortex) for gonarthrosis and coxarthrosis - Results of a cohort study with a control group. Phytomedicine. 2008 Sep 22.
  16. Vlachojannis JE, Cameron M, Chrubasik S. 2009. A systematic review on the effectiveness of willow bark for musculoskeletal pain. Phytother Res 23: 897–900.
  17. Tohgi H, Konno S, Tamura K, Kimura B, Kawano K. 1992. Effects of low-to-high doses of aspirin on platelet aggregability and metabolites of thromboxane A2 and prostacyclin. Stroke 23, 1400–1403. (10.1161/01.STR.23.10.1400) [PubMed]
  18. Alfonso L, Ai G, Spitale RC, Bhat GJ. 2014. Molecular targets of aspirin and cancer prevention. Br. J. Cancer 111, 61–67. (10.1038/bjc.2014.271)
  19. Ishikado A, Sono Y, Matsumoto M, et al. 2012. Willow bark extract increases antioxidant exzymes and reduces oxidative stress through activation of Nrf2 in vascular endothelial cells and Caenorhabditis elegans. Free Rad Biol Med. DOI:10:1016/ j.freeradbiolmed.2012.12-006.
  20. Zhu F, Xi DH, Yuan S, Xu F, Zhang DW, Lin HH. 2014. Salicylic acid and jasmonic acid are essential for systemic resistance against tobacco mosaic virus in Nicotiana benthamiana. Mol. Plant Microbe Interact 27, 567–577. (10.1094/MPMI-11-13-0349-R)
  21. Krivoy N, Pavlotzky E, et al. Effect of salicis cortex extract on human platelet aggregation.Planta Med 2001 Apr;67(3):209-12.
  22. Steinegger E, Hovel H. 1972. Analytical and biological studies on Salicaceae substances, especially salacin. II. Biological study. Pharmaceut Acta Helv 47: 222–234.
  23. Agata Durak* and Urszula Gawlik-Dziki, The Study of Interactions between Active Compounds of Coffee and Willow (Salix sp.) Bark Water Extract, Biomed Res Int. 2014; 2014: 386953.
  24. Monika Untergehrer , Josef Kiermaier , Susanne Reintjes , Jorg Heilmann , Guido J ¨ urgenliemk, Identification of phase-II metabolites from human serum samples after oral intake of a willow bark extract ¨ PII: S0944-7113(18)30560-9 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phymed.2018.11.003 Reference: PHYMED 52742 To appear in: Phytomedicine
CompositionWillow Bark Extract
Daily dose: 2 capsules
Number of doses per pack: 30

Amount per dose

Salicin (from 532 mg of willow bark extract standardised to 15% salicin) 80 mg
Other ingredients: acacia gum, white rice bran.
Directions for useWillow Bark Extract
Adults. Take 2 capsules a day. Each capsule contains 40 mg de salicin.
Caution: Do not take this product if you think you may have an aspirin allergy.

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Willow Bark Extract + PEA
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